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Russia Communications
 
 
 
 
 
 

General

The telecommunications system in Russia have undergone significant changes since the 1980s, resulting in more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services today. The foundation for liberalisation of broadcasting was laid by the decree signed by the President of the USSR in 1990.

The telephone systems in the 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas. In the rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate and low density.

Cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Vladivostok, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk.

Russia is connected internationally by three undersea fibre-optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat and Orbita.

Digital Audio Broadcasting is developing fast with the Voice of Russia announced On 1 July 2004, the successful implementation, and planned expansion, of its DRM broadcasts on short-wave and medium-wave.

Privately owned stations are often owned by industrial groups either controlled by the State or with close connections to the government so that they can be called semi-state. Both state and private stations can have a national status (broadcasters that reach over 70% of the national territory), or a regional, district or local status. Local partners are often united in bigger networks.

In the 1970s and 1980s, television become the pre-eminent mass medium. In 1988 approximately 75 million households owned television sets, and an estimated 93% of the population watched television. Moscow, the base from which most of the television stations broadcast, transmitted some 90% of the country's programs, with the help of more than 350 stations and nearly 1,400 relay facilities.


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