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Russia Geography

Russia is located in northeastern Europe and northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world – slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the United States, with a total area of 17,075,200 sq km (6,592,771 sq mi). Russia shares boundaries with the Arctic Ocean on the north, northern Pacific Ocean on the east, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, Georgia on the south, and the Black Sea, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Estonia, Finland on the west with a total land boundary of 19,990 km (12,421 mi) and a coastline of 37,653 km (23,396 mi). Russia's capital city, Moscow, is located in the eastern part of the country.

The topography of Russia features a broad plain with low hills west of the Ural Mountains with vast coniferous forests and tundra in Siberia. There are uplands and mountains along the southern border region. Despite its size, only a small percentage of Russia's land is arable, with much of it too far north for cultivation.

Most of the country has a continental climate, with long, cold winters and brief summers. There is a wide range of summer and winter temperatures and relatively low precipitation. January temperatures are in the range of 6°C (45 °F) on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea. A record low temperature of -71°C (-96 °F) was recorded in 1974 at the northeast Siberian village of Oymyakon, the lowest temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world for an inhabited region. In many areas of Siberia the soil never thaws for more than a foot.

Annual precipitation decreases from about 64-76 cm (25-30 in) in the European region to less than 5 cm (2 in) a year in parts of Central Asia. The tundra has long winters, with summers lasting one or two months, and receives from 8 to 12 months of snow or rain. The far northern forest, like most of the country, has long severe winters, short summers, and extremely short springs and autumns. Precipitation is low but falls throughout the year, varying from 53 cm (21 in) at Moscow to between 20 and 25 cm (8-10 in) in eastern Siberia. The steppes have very cold winters and hot, dry summers.


Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering theArctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates
6000 N, 100 00 E

Map references

total: 17,075,200 sq km
land: 16,995,800 sq km
water: 79,400 sq km

Area - comparative
approximately1.8 times the size of the US

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